Learning vs. teaching


Learning and teaching have a lot in common, such as the -ing form or the fact that both activities as we usually know them happen at school. Well, now that I think about it, I’m not so sure. …

Source: Learning vs. teaching


Oxford Learner’s Dictionaries; Spread the Word; The Oxford Learner’s Dictionaries Blog



Word of the Month


Lee Blaylock Food StylistHave you ever found yourself in a restaurant or café, having made your choice but facing the embarrassment of not knowing how to pronounce it? Menus in English are often peppered withwords borrowed from different languages; after all, just like our language, our cuisine draws oninfluences from throughout the world. And like the food itself, the words have become anglicizedas our prowess in foreign languages falls a little short of our multilingual neighbours.

To the chagrin (or bemusement) of Italian speakers, ordering a panini is far from the only time we misuse foreign food words. An example soon to be added to OALD online in this category is biscotti – but the Oxford English Corpus quotes ‘I grabbed a latté and a biscotti’, a faux pasnot uncommon among native English speakers. Both biscotti and panini are plural nouns in the original Italian, but even English plurals can be a source of inaccuracies, and can be found with a scattering of decorative apostrophes on menus and signs, so it is hardly surprising that we stumble over asking for bruschetta – is it /bruˈʃetə/ or /bruˈsketə/? You’re less likely to be understood in English-speaking countries if you pronounce it correctly, /bruˈsketə/. And what’s worse, you risk looking rather pedantic.

And this risk isn’t limited to ordering food – perhaps at your next coffee klatch with friends you might stumble over what to drink, too. If you search for latte in OALD, it will redirect you to caffè latte, which would be understood in Italy. But in English-speaking countries it has become the norm to ask for a latte (pronounced by most /ˈlɑːteɪ/), which might confuse an Italian. Why would a fully-grown adult just be ordering milk? But not only this; sometimes we go even further in our attempts to be exotic, adding superfluities such as the accent you might have noticed sneaking in above (‘I grabbed a latté…’).

Ironically, we seem to think this lends more authenticity to a foreign word. Here’s another example from the Oxford English Corpus:

There’s a salsa bar of sorts from which you can choose your heat, from mild to habañero. The place feels authentic.

Well, perhaps it feels authentic to those who don’t know that Habanero has no tilde – but maybe the confusion comes from the similarity to jalapeños, which, like fajitas and tacos, English speakers make a good stab at pronouncing authentically. Having taught modern foreign languages to secondary school students, I became more aware of this rather endearing tendency to pop an accent on a word to make it seem less like an English word whose translation has been guessed at. Or we go to the other extreme and treat foreign borrowings as English, such as adding the regular ending to make the French past participle sauté an English one, to make sautéed potatoes.

And speaking of confusion, a recent TV cookery competition in the UK sparked debate (even anger) over the pronunciation of chorizo, with the sausage being pronounced in three different ways: /ʃəˈriːzəʊ/, /tʃəˈriːtsəʊ/ (perhaps because people think it’s Italian?) and /tʃəˈriːθəʊ/. We seem to be able to pronounce churros, so why not the /tʃ/ of chorizo?

But perhaps we shouldn’t worry that languages are not really our forte: the English language is a melting pot of words borrowed and tweaked from others throughout the centuries, why stop adding to the mix now?

(Incidentallyforte comes from French, so why do we pronounce it as though it were Italian?!)

Isabel Tate is Dictionaries Assistant in the ELT Dictionaries department at Oxford University Press. Learning languages is her forte and, when not sipping lattes and baking lasagnes, she has taught languages in the UK, France and Italy, and biscotti-making in Peru.

How the California roll, Hawaiian pizza and the Bloody Caesar were invented in Canada

Articles, Uncategorized


How the California roll, Hawaiian pizza and the Bloody Caesar were invented in Canada

Want to get patriotic this weekend? When it comes to food, the options are more than poutine and Nanaimo bars

By Sophia Harris, CBC News Posted: Jul 02, 2017 5:00 AM ET Last Updated: Jul 02, 2017 5:00 AM ET

Believe it or not, the California roll was created in Canada.

Believe it or not, the California roll was created in Canada. (David Donnelly/CBC)

When it comes to notable foods, Canada can lay claim to more than just poutine, Nanaimo bars and those sugar-coated BeaverTails.

Thanks to our diverse culture, this country is also the birthplace of some other famous fare that may surprise you.

The California roll

When Hidekazu Tojo emigrated from Japan to Vancouver in 1971, sushi was not on the menu. The 67-year-old chef says that most people didn’t eat raw fish and thought seaweed belonged in the ocean.

“‘Oh, seaweed, eww, yuck.’ People said that,” recalls Tojo.

Determined to make sushi appealing to the locals, the chef opted for more palatable fillers, such as cooked crabmeat and avocado. To conceal the offending dried seaweed, he rolled the sushi so the rice was on the outside.

“We called it the inside-out roll,” says Tojo. “This was breaking Japanese tradition.”

The year was 1974.

Hidekazu Tojo

Vancouver chef Hidekazu Tojo decided to hide the seaweed inside his sushi so his customers would find it more palatable. (Tojo’s)

Tojo’s creation became a huge hit and was eventually dubbed the “California roll.” He’s unsure how his creation got its official name, suspecting it has something to do with the fact avocados grow in California.

Today, the California roll is a standard menu item at sushi restaurants around the world. It typically contains avocado, crab or imitation crab, and cucumber.

Tojo is still working as a chef and now owns his own restaurant, Tojo’s, in downtown Vancouver.

He’s bittersweet about the popularity of his inside-out creation; he’s glad people are embracing Japanese food — but uneasy with the fact that everyone copied his invention.

“Great chefs never copy, I believe that,” says Tojo. “But today, everybody copies. No respect.”

And while the California roll is now a household name, Tojo’s is decidedly less so. “They don’t know who did it. That’s a shame,” he says.

Hawaiian pizza

Hawaiian pizza

Sam Panopoulos said he was inspired by a can of pineapple on his shelf when he created Hawaiian pizza. (CBC)

When Sam Panopoulos emigrated from Greece to Canada in 1954, pizza was an oddity. “Pizza wasn’t in Canada — nowhere,” he told CBC Radio’s As It Happens in February.

At the time, the food was available in Detroit and was slowly making its way to neighbouring Windsor, Ont., not far from Chatham, Ont., the small town where Panopoulos had settled and opened a restaurant.

When visiting Windsor, he dined on pizza and decided to try making it at home. “Those days, the main thing was mushrooms, bacon and pepperoni. There was nothing else going on the pizza,” said Panopoulos.

Sam Panopoulos Hawaiian pizza inventor

Sam Panopoulos said when he first served up Hawaiian pizza, no one liked it. But then it caught on and restaurant customers ‘went crazy’ for the food. (Panopoulos family)

Inspired by a can of pineapple on his shelf, he took a chance and tossed the fruit on his pizza. The year was 1962.

“Nobody liked it at first,” said Panopoulos. “Those days nobody was mixing sweets and sours and all that. It was plain, plain food.”

But eventually the pineapple-topped pizza took off and his restaurant customers “went crazy” for the food. “Everybody wants it,” he said.

Today, his creation, known as Hawaiian pizza, is served at pizza restaurants around the world. Yet Panopoulos — who died last month at the age of 82 — always remained humble about his invention.

“He was very modest about it,” says his son, Bill Panopoulos, who lives in London, Ont. “He enjoyed telling the story if you would ask him, but he wasn’t seeking fame.”

After his death, media outlets around the world, from the BBC to gossip site TMZ, noted the passing of the inventor of Hawaiian pizza.

The Bloody Caesar

Bloody Caesars

The Bloody Caesar was invented by Calgary’s Walter Chell in 1969. It continues to be a popular Canadian cocktail. (Shutterstock / Jeff Wasserman)

The Bloody Caesar cocktail is so popular, it may surprise some Canadians that it was invented here — yet is actually not well-known outside the country.

It all began in 1969, when Italian immigrant Walter Chell was working as a beverage manager at the Westin Hotel in Calgary. He decided to mix up a new drink for the hotel’s new restaurant.

Chell combined tomato juice, clam juice, Worcestershire sauce, spices and vodka, the story goes. He named the concoction simply “Caesar.”

But that bloody part? He offered the drink to a British guest sitting at the bar.

“The British gentleman said, ‘This is a bloody good Caesar,’ and that’s how the Bloody Caesar came to be,” says Chell’s granddaughter, Sheena Parker.

Mott's Clamato ad Walter Chell

Chell sold his recipe to Mott’s and became a spokesperson for its Clamato drink. (Mott’s)

The cocktail became such a hit that the U.S.-based company Mott’s bought Chell’s recipe, says Parker. The company also signed him on as a spokesperson for its product: Mott’s Clamato — a clam and tomato juice drink that can be used to make a Caesar.

“He was the poster child for the [Clamato] drink for a number of years,” says Parker.

Chell died in 1997 at age 71.

Today, the Bloody Caesar is served at most Canadian bars. According to the Mott’s Clamato website, Parliament declared the Caesar Canada’s official cocktail in 2009.

While Chell wasn’t alive to witness it, Parker says he never would have expected such a designation for his drink.

“He would always say he preferred a nice glass of red wine over a Bloody Caesar,” she says. “He was a humble man and not one to self-promote any achievements.”

But she does think it’s fitting to remember innovators like Chell for Canada’s 150th birthday.

“When you think of Canada, you think of everybody that’s come from somewhere to create their mark and create a better life,” says Parker. “He certainly did that and it was just nice that he was able to leave a little bit a legacy for others to enjoy.”

Introduction to Workplace Communication Skills




Human beings need social contacts. That’s how people learn. They learn by relating themselves with others in social contexts directly or indirectly.


People make mistakes: communication breakdowns; the mismatch between the speaker’s intention and the listener’s interpretation; emotional involvement instead of investigating the core issue; assumptions with no grounds; the absence of the collaborating stage to define and adjust boundaries in the particular context of two or more parties


No matter what personality types or working styles they have, professionals need to be flexible working alone, collaborating, and socializing at work anyway.




Building up flexibility in thinking, interpreting, behaving, and reflecting in the context


Core Skills:


Agreeing and Disagreeing; Compromising; Negotiating


Basic Principals:


  1. We only consider behaviors including the language people use, not the people – In Canada, everybody has a story. All of our colleagues we meet have different backgrounds even if they come from the same culture. We cannot judge anybody by their appearance, skin color, accent or gestures because we can never know what family culture they experienced or what their personal background was like. We all come from different asteroids which others have never been to, so to speak, every single person is a different asteroid. Therefore, we can only discuss what appears to be a fact or facts in the particular context. No more than that is expected to be discussed in this book.


  1. Power and distance are considered – We are talking about ESL schools and institutions. When immigrant adults are considered whether as ESL learners or ESL instructors, ‘Power’ is an inevitable factor in the context because many immigrant professionals come from power-dominated. ‘Distance’ is one of the most important values that is expected to be observed by Canadians.


  1. We cannot control other people’s behaviors, however, we can still request others to stop their inappropriate behaviors at work. It is not inappropriate to ask my coworkers to change their behaviors because I DO feel uncomfortable with them. Two things to remember about this point: (1) Others can always reject or refuse my requests; (2) let us check in with ourselves beforehand asking questions as ‘Self-Reflection Questionnaire’ (next page).


  1. The boundary needs to be agreed by all participants in the context. An open conversation about the boundary needs to be set up before any assumptions can be unnecessarily involved in the context (often mingled with emotions and feelings). Again, it is not inappropriate to talk about boundaries with my coworkers. Oftentimes, boundary issues significantly affect problematic situations, that is, the core issue in problematic situations can often result from an unclear boundary or the mismatch of different boundaries participants have in mind. Let us peel this out of the ‘unspoken rules and expectations’.


  1. ‘I’ statements are used instead of ‘you should….’ ‘you didn’t….’ ‘you are….’ ‘you…..’. I can only change my behaviors. What I can do in any context is a choice to make. I would rather choose to make a right choice for myself and a better working relationship at work. I cannot force or impose anybody to understand me to change their behaviors. They have their choices to make. I am not responsible for other people’s behaviors or feelings but they Do have the responsibility for their own behaviors and their own feelings.


  1. I am responsible for my behaviors. My behavior is my choice and what I brought into the situation, not because somebody caused me to do a certain action as a result. Nobody can force or impose me to make a particular choice of an action in Canada because I am a free and independent individual. When I realize I made a mistake, I accept it and apologize for that behavior. It is okay to do so and nobody should judge me because of the mistake. People continuously learn and grow no matter how old they are.


  1. Feelings are out of the picture – Feelings at work need to be communicated appropriately which means calmly and in a reciprocal manner. Fairness should be abided by all parties in the context in Canada. Dominating a situation with a certain behavior coming from a single-sided view or perspective without an open conversation tackling the core issue may threaten the safety and security of the workplace: Discrimination and Workplace Harassment. Let us remember that I can acknowledge how I feel and how others feel, however, I am responsible for my feelings while others are responsible for their feelings just as I am responsible for my behaviors while others are responsible for their behaviors.


  1. Rewards – the greatest reward of making efforts into communicating better is (1) an excellent relationship with myself (2) good relationship with my colleagues and ultimately (3) my own personal happiness.



Then, why not try this out? Shall we?