Making the Native-Speaker Debate more Inclusive
One thing that I have always hated about writing letters is deciding between Mr., Ms., or Mrs. First names can be ambiguous, and even if you know they are female (or identify as female), then you must for some reason consider whether they are married or not. So, I was pretty happy to find the newish Mx. as a gender-netural and more inclusive title that is being more used and accepted in the English-speaking world. In a world where inclusiveness is becoming quite the norm (as it should), the -x suffix seems to be becoming more popular. For example, Latinx, as opposed to Latino or Latina, has been enjoying wide usage. In the field of language teaching and applied linguistics, Jean-Marc Dewaele introduces us to the inclusive term LX, which includes first language users but highlights second/third/foreign language users. This term is used as a way to move even further away from the native/non-native speaker dichotomy towards a more accurate representation of multi-competent language users.
Dewaele writes that the debate attempting to define native and non-native speakers is still alive and despite attempts to address it. The term non-native speaker is considered exclusionary, possibly racist, and downright strange – defining a person but what they are not (such as calling “blue-eyed people as ‘not brown-eyed’”). In addition, the native/non-native dichotomy is often conceived of in terms of monolingualism despite not being the norm.
The term L2 user has been an attempt to move away from the native/non-native dichotomy, but L2 seems to stand for all languages beyond the second, and it is used as a measure of comparison to the native speaker. This is despite L1 attrition, L1 variation (based on dialect or education), and L1 use (such as literacy, hearing, signing, etc.).
Dewaele introduces the “value-neutral” term LX (p. 3):
The term ‘LX user’ does not imply any level of proficiency, which means it could range from minimal to maximal and could very well be equal or superior to that of L1 users in certain domains.
Dewaele uses the term LX to shift the focus even further from native speakers towards one that looks at users of languages, which can be any combination of L1s and LXs. It shifts the focus from the monolingual native as a benchmark, abstraction, or goal and allows for more value-neutral comparisons. Dewaele offers an example of this sort of comparison: “We could compare quadrilinguals in their French L3 with quadrilingual French L1 users” (p. 4). What LX does is put both groups of language users on an equal footing without subsuming them to some native ideal. By using the value-neutral term “LX users”, these people are no longer considered to represent a defective version of native speakers of that language.
The practical implications of LX are quite limited, but it does offer a way to reframe how we think of language use. It moves us even further away from value-laden comparisons to an elusive native speaker or L1.
Dewaele, J. (2017). Why the dichotomy ‘L1 versus LX user’ is better than ‘native versus non-native speaker’. Applied Linguistics. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.1093/applin/amw055.
Thanks to Dr. Jean-Marc Dewaele for reviewing my summary.
Why the Dichotomy ‘L1 Versus LX User’ is Better than ‘Native Versus Non-native Speaker
I’ve come across this fantastic website today:
In terms of levels, they use CEF Levels:
The Common European Framework of Reference for Languages (CEF or CEFR) was put together by the Council of Europe as a way of standardising the levels of language exams in different regions. It is very widely used internationally and all important exams are mapped to the CEFR. (Source)
Currently, B1, B2, C1 level lessons are covered. These lesson plans organized by 4 themes: Business, Technology, Global Issues, Life. Worksheets are provided in 2 different versions: Student’s Version; Teacher’s Version.
A Fascinating work they’ve been putting online in terms of using TED Talks for ESL lessons. Worth clicking on them to print out useful worksheets for intermediate and advanced level ESL learners!
Bank of Canada unveils new $10 banknote for Canada 150 celebrations
Bill features 4 portraits of Canadian politicians, Inuit art and Canadian landscapes
CBC News Posted: Apr 07, 2017 12:31 PM ET Last Updated: Apr 07, 2017 3:07 PM ET
Learning by Doing
Oxford Brookes University
(Oxford Center for Staff and Learning Development)
- What is Experiential Learning Theory?
- What does it mean in a lesson, in terms of an individual difference in learning and a curriculum?
- What does it imply in support staff development?
- How can it improve a program?
Will come back with my reflections soon.
Source: 1. Your Boss is Not Your Mother
We all think about work relationships and sometimes wonder why and how they do not go smoothly as much as we would like them to be. Let’s see what the author suggests.
I can pay attention to details. This quality helps me meticulously plan for my duties and follow the procedures of the plans. Lesson planning takes me a long time but I accomplish what I plan mostly. The downside of it is that it takes too much time. Time Management can be an issue at times. Also, I disclose too much information to the listener and it can be overwhelming to some colleagues or students. Here’s what I am practicing now.
Basic principal of my approach: Mistakes are fine. Move forward with my lessons I take away from my mistakes. Everybody makes mistakes, fails in their trials, and learns from their failures. Failing is not the end of the road. Giving up is. As long as I don’t give up moving forward with my lessons earned, I will do better in similar situations in the future. I continue trying no matter what other people tell me what to do or what I shouldn’t do. I will listen to my intuition.
The Simpler, the Easier:
Facts – Facts are as data. Interpretation is not fact. It is my perception of somebody’s words or behaviors. Let’s focus on the facts when we need to deal with difficult situations.
Impact – At a workplace, feelings are not considered by my employer/boss/supervisor and even colleagues. They are not my family. I am not my employee’s mother or friend. ‘Caring’ has been ‘unnecessary feeling’ from my part. I wasn’t expected to ‘CARE’ for others. Especially, when there’s a power distance, we need to be aware that we are not friends or family. I keep my boundaries around them.
Time Limit – This is what I need to adjust better. I am caring. I pay attention to details. I listen. I try to understand. It takes time. However, it has worked against my time, energy, and working boundaries. Then, I change it. I set the time limit when I talk to a person. I inform the person of this time limit at the beginning of the talk. I keep track of the time so I do not go overtime. Otherwise, it may exhaust me or drain me and we do not want this.
Fair request: Agreed by both parties. Clear understanding of what is negotiable and what not is important.
Focus on one thing: What’s the priority here? One thing at a time.
Consequences: I can only do my best. Anybody can only do their best.
Before: I am going into a situation where I need to resolve a conflict with a classroom instructor today. There has been a complaint from this instructor about administrative tasks she was asked to do. I will write the reflection tonight. Let’s see what happens.
One basic principle of my approach: One thing at a time. I do not speak about two things at the same time because there’s no point to discuss several things if not even one thing can be changed in the situation. Let’s focus on one thing now and another thing the next time. We don’t want to give distractions but want to see this one issue resolved.
After: Here’s what has happened (Situation) and what was done today (Resolution): (Step 1) what the facts were in the situation; (Step 2) how the feelings of the participants were; (Step 3) what the requests were; (Step 4) the consequences of the discussion; and (Step 5) the start date of the new implementation.
Situation: I am an ESL school manager in charge of several schools. I started working part time last year and have made fewer visits in each school in this new school year. So I had to frequently communicate with my instructors by email. I asked all instructors to send me the student information who request for the school letter in order to verify with their social workers if it was actually requested by them. I did not have any issues with other instructors but this particular instructor. First, the information she sent me was often incorrect. We emailed back and forth and the process got often delayed. Second, miscommunication often occurred: I ask question A and she gives answer B. The communication did not go anywhere to get the work done. Third, I changed my request thinking it would help the communication process easier. I asked her to send me the scanned image of the final letter. I told her I would fax it from my office. The next thing happened (problem) was, she called my supervisor and reported her that I was imposing her more work and she would request the union to take an action on managers including me. She phoned me, asked to stop my involvement in the process, and informed me that she got the complaint call from this instructor.
Step 1: the Facts
- She was emailing me with her small cellphone. It was very inconvenient for her to type all numbers and names with those small buttons. That’s why there were many mistakes. Also, she was receiving so many emails not only from me and she sometimes missed my emails. She was not able to follow all my information (questions and clarifications) I was sending out to her. Therefore, the email communication wasn’t working for her.
- What I was informed about the verification procedure was not accurate. There has been a communication breakdown in our department. No orientation for a new staff member, no consistent instructions for managers to follow by the supervisor, no followup conversations or discussions when there is a staff change regarding one duty, that is, no consistent monitoring and guiding system for managers exists. Therefore, each manager practices differently in the field and this is not monitored.
- This instructor did not know how to attach a scanned image to an email as an attachment even though she had a scanner. She could not comprehend the instructions that I gave regarding ‘scanning and attaching a file to an email’ at all. Her technical competency was way lower than the level of abilities that she believed and told she had which I did not know.
- She actually had spent a lot of time lesson planning to follow the new system implemented by the government. I did not know how much effort she was putting into her lesson planning and documenting before I visited. I understood that today.
- I learned about this instructor as a person today by talking with her for 1.5 hours. She is a person who remembers negative memories and feelings for a long time. For example, her anecdotes she was sharing today were all negative stories. One event she was explaining as if it happened yesterday was an event from 15 years ago. This person is not a happy person. This person would not let go of any negative emotions and rather brood on it over and over and years after another. This person can easily hold a grudge and try to make the other person pay back. She is aggressive. She can be very nasty gossiping or verbally dominating when arguing. She is not good with listening to the other unless the other person expresses the goal of the conversation is to maintain a good working relationship.
Step 2: Feelings
- Compassionate: I was open. I was ready to listen. I decided to be compassionate before I went into the conversation whatever she would talk about and however she would talk.
- Focused: I decided to discuss the letter only but nothing else today. I expected she would bring up so many other complaints and she did. I brought her back to the letter issue till we agreed on how we would do from now on.
- Frustrated: She was frustrated due to the workload.
- Overwhelmed: She was overwhelmed by the new evaluation system implemented by the government.
- Upset and angry: She was upset at the learners who were leaving the classroom for calls or washrooms during the class time. She yelled at them. A counselor visited a learner at the end of the class. She shouted at her too.
- Embarrassed: When she shouted and yelled at her students, I showed indifference on my face by paying attention to other objects in the classroom because I felt embarrassed and did not want to address that today. However, I started the conversation with her by asking her “Why did you yell at them?” expressing my surprise at her inappropriate behavior. I will address this later.
- Cooperative: She apologized for her anger at me and understood I did not mean to impose any more burden on her. I expressed my understanding of her overwhelming workload and gratitude for her effort into lesson planning and documenting. She asked for support and help. I offered her my reviewing her lesson plans and scheduled another visit next week to offer suggestions on more efficient lesson planning in her case.
Step 3: Fair Request
- I asked her to issue the letters whenever necessary and she did not need to report that to me any more. [Reducing unnecessary administrative process]
- I asked her to call the social workers if the learner shows poor attendance.
- I will look into how to improve lesson planning procedure using an online program. Next week, I will bring my suggestions for her. At the end of this month, I will visit her class again in order to assist her to evaluate the learners when she will need to decide on promoting or retaining them.
Step 4: Consequences
- She was heard and understood by her supervisor regarding her difficulties and negative emotions about her workload.
- She understood I wanted to support her.
- We will work toward the improvements in lesson planning and evaluation till the summer.
- HOMEWORK: I now understand how she is. I need to build up strategies to leave the conversation when she leads the talk into a very negative direction. It may drag me because I am a good listener. She does not know when to stop her talk. I need to develop the strategies to interrupt a talk in order to change the subject.
Step 5: Date & Time of Implementation
- Thursday April 6, 9:00 – 12:00
What a long day! I feel good though. I will share more cases. This reflection will help me develop more awareness and strategies in dealing with difficult situations. Thank you for the opportunity of learning, the universe!
by Don Miguel Ruiz, amber-Allen Publishing (1997)
A great book to reflect on the following areas:
Don’t take anything personally.
Don’t make assumptions.
Always do your best.
Words are a little vague by looking at the word itself as ‘Domestication’. What is it? Then, I realize it is so true once I understand what the author meant and how powerful education can be. Not only in the positive aspects that we know and also in a different way that impacts our lives.
The second chapter ‘Be impeccable with your word’ also doesn’t tell much by reading the word ‘impeccable’ but covers an important thing too: Tell the truth.
This is a think small book and a very easy-read but reminded me of very important truths.
I like simple but impactful stuff nowadays.
I highly recommend this book.